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Mobile livelihoods: key readings

February 15, 2010

A first attempt at identifying key readings under the broad theme of ‘mobile livelihoods’, i.e. how people around the globe – but particularly in the global South – use mobile technologies to improve their livelihoods, if at all. Further bibliographic suggestions always welcomed.

Created 15 Feb. 2010

Last updated 15 Feb. 2010

Abraham, R. (2007) ‘Mobile Phones and Economic Development: Evidence from the Fishing Industry in India’, Information Technologies and International Development 4(1): 5-17.

Castells, Manuel, Mireia Fernandez-Ardevol, Jack Linchuan Qiu and Araba Sey. Mobile Communication and Society: A Global Perspective. Cambridge, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 2007. See also reviews by:

Donner, J. (2005) ‘The Social and Economic Implications of Mobile Telephony in Rwanda: An Ownership/Access Typology’, in P. Glotz, S. Bertschi and C. Locke (eds.) Thumb Culture: The Meaning of Mobile Phones for Society, pp. 37-51. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

Donner, J. (2009) ‘Blurring Livelihoods and Lives: The Social Uses of Mobile Phones and Socioeconomic Development’, Innovations 4(1): 91-101.

Horst, H. A. and D. Miller (2006) The Cell Phone: An Anthropology of Communication. New York, NY: Berg.

Jagun, A., R. Heeks and J. Whalley (2008) ‘The Impact of Mobile Telephony on Developing Country Micro-Enterprise: A Nigerian Case Study’, Information Technologies and International Development 4(4): 47-65.

Jensen, R. (2007) ‘The Digital Provide: Information (Technology), Market Performance, and Welfare in the South Indian Fisheries Sector’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 122(3): 879-924.

Overå, R. (2008) ‘Mobile Traders and Mobile Phones in Ghana’, in J. Katz (ed.) Handbook of Mobile Communication Studies, pp. 43-54. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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  1. Francisco Osorio permalink
    February 16, 2010 9:48 am

    Mobile Livelihoods Literature Review
    Date: 15/02/10
    Database: Abstract in Anthropology
    Keyword: Mobile
    All years covered.

    1. Title: MOBILE LIVELIHOODS: THE SOCIOCULTURAL PRACTICES OF CIRCULAR MIGRANTS BETWEEN PUERTO RICO AND THE UNTIED STATES.
    Author(s): Duany, J.
    Source: International Migration Review
    Year: 2002
    Volume (Issue): 36(2) pp. 355-388
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 47, Issue 3
    Abstract: This article focuses on the bilateral flow of people between Puerto Rico and the United States— what has come to be known as circular, commuter, or revolving-door migration. It documents the migrants’ livelihood practices based on a recent field study of population flows between Puerto Rico and the mainland. Specifically, the basic characteristics of multiple movers, one-time movers and nonmovers residing in Puerto Rico are compared. More broadly, the article assesses the implications of circular migration for Puerto Rican communities on and off the island. The author’s basic argument is that the constant displacement of people—both to and from the island— blurs the territorial, linguistic, and juridical boundaries of the Puerto Rican nation. As people expand their means of subsistence across space, they develop multiple attachments to various localities. In the Puerto Rican situation, such mobile livelihoods are easier to establish than in other places because of the free movement of labor and capital between the island and the mainland. The author hypothesizes that circulation does not entail major losses in human capital for most Puerto Ricans, but rather often constitutes an occupational, educational, and linguistic asset.

    2. Title: THE BLESSINGS AND BURDENS OF COMMUNICATION: CELL PHONES IN JAMAICAN TRANSNATIONAL SOCIAL FIELDS.
    Author(s): Horst, H. A.
    Source: Global Networks.
    Year: 2006
    Volume (Issue): 6(2) pp. 143-159
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 56, Issue 1
    Abstract: Although much mention has been made of the importance of ICTs for transnational migrants, we know relatively little about how these technologies affect or change everyday transnational communications. Tracing the shift from community phone boxes to individually owned mobile (cell) phones in rural Jamaica, in this article I focus on the integration of mobile phones in Jamaican transnational communication. Equipped with a mobile phone, rural Jamaicans no longer rely on collect phone calls and expensive calling cards to initiate the connections between their friends and relatives living abroad. For many Jamaicans without access to a regular or reliable phone service prior to 2001, the mobile phone is viewed as an unadulterated blessing, transforming the role of transnational communication from an intermittent event to a part of daily life. For others, however, the mobile phone remains an object of ambivalence, bringing unforeseen burdens and obligations.

    3. Title: PLAYING POLITICS WITH THE MOBILE PHONE IN NIGERIA: CIVIL SOCIETY, BIG BUSINESS & THE STATE.
    Author(s): Obadare, E.
    Source: Review of African Political Economy.
    Year: 2006
    Volume (Issue): 107() pp. 93-111
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 56, Issue 3
    Abstract: On 19 September 2003, mobile phone subscribers in Nigeria took the unprecedented step of switching off their handsets en masse. The subscribers took this symbolic step in protest against perceived exploitation by the existing mobile phone companies. Among other things, they were angered by allegedly exorbitant tariffs, poor reception, frequent and unfavourable changes in contract terms, and arbitrary reduction of credits. Among other critical questions, the protest helped bring into focus the following: How is (mobile) technology shaping the democratic momentum in Nigeria? How useful is technology as a mechanism for socio-economic empowerment? Using the boycott as backdrop, this paper provides some tentative answers. It is argued that the boycott ought to be appraised, first, in the context of existing mistrust between citizens and transnational big business in Nigeria; and second, against the background of difficult state-society intercourse which has mostly been characterised by the latter’s suspicion of the state’s connivance with the corporate establishment.

    4. Title: THE QUIET STANDARDS BATTLE FOR TV-ON-A-MOBILE.
    Author(s): Lancaster, B.
    Source: Communications Africa.
    Year: 2005
    Volume (Issue): pp. 52-55
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 54, Issue 1
    Abstract: If the cellular carriers have their way, we should soon have access to live TV transmissions on our 3G mobile phones-how the TV signals reach the mobile, however, depends on which standards are adopted.

    5. Title: ORGANIZING A REMOTE STATE OF INCIPIENT TALK: PUSH-TO-TALK MOBILE RADIO INTERACTION.
    Author(s): Szymanski, M. H. et al.
    Source: Language in Society.
    Year: 2006
    Volume (Issue): 35() pp. 393-418
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 54, Issue 3
    Abstract: This study investigates the organization of conversational interaction via push-to-talkmobile radios. Operating like long-range walkie-talkies, the mobile radios mediate a remote state of incipient talk; at the push of a button, speakers can initiate, engage, disengage, and reengage turn-by-turn talk. Eight friends used the mobile radios for one week; 50 of their conversational exchanges were analyzed using conversation analytic methods. The findings describe the contour of their conversational exchanges: how turn-by-turn talk is engaged, sustained, and disengaged. Similar to a continuing state of incipient talk in copresence, opening and closing sequences are rare. Instead, speakers engage turn-by-turn talk by immediately launching the purpose of the call. Speakers disengage turn-by-turn talk by orienting to the relevance of a lapse at sequence completion. Once engaged, the mobile radio system imposes silence between speakers’ turns at talk, giving them a resource for managing a remote conversation amid ongoing copresent activities.

    6. Title: A MANIFESTO ON MOBILE COMPUTING IN GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION.
    Author(s): Armstrong, M. P., Bennett, D. A.
    Source: The Professional Geographer
    Year: 2005
    Volume (Issue): 57(4) pp. 506-515
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 53, Issue 4
    Abstract: Mobile, location-aware computing technology is widely available. In this article we sketch out a manifesto on mobile computing in geographic education (MoGeo) for consideration and debate within the geographic community. At the core of our argument is the idea that emerging mobile computing technologies will allow teachers to bring the classroom and pedagogic materials into the field, and that the resulting in situ educational experience will enhance learning by contextualizing the complex and abstract concepts that we teach. We provide a set of key principles that can guide the development of field experiences for students using these new technologies.

    7. Title: MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS, SOCIAL NETWORKS, AND URBAN TRAVEL: HYPERTEXT AS A NEW METAPHOR FOR CONCEPTUALIZING SPATIAL INTERACTION
    Author(s): Kwan, M.-P.
    Source: The Professional Geographer
    Year: 2007
    Volume (Issue): 59(4) pp. 434-446
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 58, Issue 3
    Abstract: The widespread use of mobile communications is leading to new practices in family life and social life, and these changes have significant implications for the study of urban travel. Because of the adoption of new modes of space-time coordination, changing time use and increasing mobility, changing use of existing urban nodes, the blurring of boundaries between home and work, the importance of social networks and social capital, and the shift to person-to-person connectivity, the spatial structure and processes of interaction among individuals have become much more complicated in this age of mobile communications. Static spatial frameworks based on fixed points (e.g., home or workplace) and distances among them are no longer adequate for understanding urban travel. The study of urban travel now needs new conceptualizations and new methodologies.

    8. Title: DETERMING DEMAND IN GHANA.
    Author(s): Anonymous
    Source: Communications Africa
    Year: 2002
    Volume (Issue): 12() pp. 25-26
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 48, Issue 1
    Abstract: Pre-paid services and falling prices are combining to rapidly increase demand for mobilephones in Ghana.

    9. Title: AUTOMATIC SENSATION: ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS IN THE DIGITAL CITY
    Author(s): Gabrys, J.
    Source: Senses and Society
    Year: 2007
    Volume (Issue): 2(2) pp. 189-200
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 59, Issue 1
    Abstract: This paper discusses the use of environmental sensors, wireless networks and mobilemedia as technologies of sensation in the city. While these devices enable a “digital city,” in many respects they appear to be immaterial, operating beyond sense. Further, drawing on two case studies presented by the Digital Cities project in Montreal, the paper considers how applications of environmental sensors and mobile media give rise to new conditions and questions for how we configure sense in the “digital city.” The paper ultimately finds that sensors direct us toward new sites, assemblages and practices of sensation within the urban sensorium.

    10. Title: BOUNDED RATIONALITY AT LARGE: TECHNOLOGICAL STANDARDS IN AIRWAVES AUCTIONS.
    Author(s): Bruggeman, J., Visser, H. J., van Rossum, W.
    Source: Social Forces
    Year: 2003
    Volume (Issue): 82(1) pp. 169-173
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 50, Issue 3
    Abstract: In industries characterized by several technological standards, each with positive network externalities, competition is different from industries with technologically “loosely coupled” organizations. We therefore expected that in airwaves auctions for mobiletelephony in the U.S., network externalities would show up in firms’ bidding. They did, although most firms were penny-wise but pound-foolish.

    11. Title: NO END IN SIGHT TO THE NITEL SAGA.
    Author(s): Anonymous.
    Source: African Review of Business and Technology.
    Year: 2006
    Volume (Issue): pp. 22-24
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 55, Issue 1
    Abstract: Despite the boom in Nigeria’s telecoms traffic, Orascom’s bid from Egypt failed to meet the minimum reserve for the sale of NITEL. And the success of the mobile sector is clouding the picture even more.

    12. Title: THE PHILIPPINES: SMS AND CITIZENSHIP.
    Author(s): Celdran, D.
    Source: Development Dialogue
    Year: 2002
    Volume (Issue): 1() pp. 91-103
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 51, Issue 1
    Abstract: In less than 10 years the use of the Short Message Service (SMS)—or text messaging—on the country’s mobile phone network has changed the personal and political lives of the citizens of the Philippines. ‘The characteristics of connectivity, speed, cost-effectiveness, mobility and confidentiality of text messaging and its adaptability to Filipino culture has made SMS the most popular form of private communication technology in the country’, writes David Celdran in this thought-provoking essay. He outlines the development of this new technology and the way in which direct communication among large sections of the population is, in turn, leading to a more interactive and democratic society. As exciting example given is how former president Estrada was forced to step down from his position in January 2001, partly because of the mass campaign organised through millions of text messages.

    13. Title: TRANSNATIONAL DIMENSIONS OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE AMONG SALVADORAN IMMIGRANTS IN THE WASHINGTON DC METROPOLITAN AREA.
    Author(s): Benítez, J. L.
    Source: Global Networks.
    Year: 2006
    Volume (Issue): 6(2) pp. 181-199
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 57, Issue 1
    Abstract: In this article I explore some dimensions of digital divide among Salvadoran immigrants in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Three main issues are addressed: the configuration of social networks, local axes of inequality and the transnational forms of appropriation and usage of the Internet and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Based on a media ethnography approach, the analysis combines structuration theory with diasporic media studies. It includes an examination of Internet communications, Salvadoran diasporic websites, the use of mobile phones and teleconferencing, and the transnational dimensions of the digital divide. The study’s findings include the limited accessibility to the Internet and ICTs among Salvadoran immigrants, the importance of understanding the transnational dimensions of the digital divide (particularly in terms of generation) and the need to design and implement communication and technology policies in the Salvadoran transnational society.

    14. Title: RETURN TO CYBERIA: TECHNOLOGY AND THE SOCIAL WORLDS OF TRANSNATIONAL MIGRANTS.
    Author(s): Panagakos, A. N., Horst, A.
    Source: Global Networks.
    Year: 2006
    Volume (Issue): 6(2) pp. 109-124
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 56, Issue 1
    Abstract: This special issue on ‘Return to Cyberia’ is an attempt to evaluate the contemporary moment of new cultural and social forms influenced by rapidly evolving technologies in their first critical decade. It contains five case studies that highlight the range of transnational experiences— from temporary migrants and refugees to the second generation. The contributors address how and why transnational populations use particular communication technologies and the ways in which these practices are influenced by factors such as generation, history of settlement and dispersal, cultural values, class and access. In addition to addressing a wide variety of study populations, the case studies highlight the variety of available ICTs including email and the Internet, teleconferencing, telephones and mobile phones. Collectively, the articles address issues such as geographic identity and connectivity, different use patterns based on gender and generation, authenticity and representation on the Internet, methodology and the intricacies of interpersonal dynamics across transnational social fields.

    15. Title: GENDER, EMPOWERMENT, AND COMMUNICATION: LOOKING BACKWARDS AND FORWARDS.
    Author(s): Sreberny, A.
    Source: International Social Science Journal.
    Year: 2005
    Volume (Issue): 184() pp. 295-299
    From original print Abstracts in Anthropology: Volume 54, Issue 1
    Abstract: A gender lens applied to global issues raises concerns about inequality and invisibility, about empowerment and participation, about the blurring boundaries between public and private, and about the need to harness the experience, knowledge, and needs of women to development and peace processes. A communications lens applied to globalisation reveals a skein of technological infrastructure on which many of the economic and financial processes of contemporary globalisation depend; an array of publicly available media channels that represent national and international political and cultural issues for domestic and transnational consumption, and increasing public access to forms of communicative technologies such as the Internet and mobile telephony that allow for public participation in message-construction.

  2. Francisco Osorio permalink
    February 16, 2010 11:49 am

    Mobile Livelihoods Literature Review
    Date: 16/02/10
    Database: Anthropological Index / AnthropologyPlus
    Keyword: Mobile
    All years covered.

    1. Author(s): Stammler, Florian M.

    Title: MOBILE PHONE REVOLUTION IN THE TUNDRA? TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AMONG RUSSIAN REINDEER NOMADS
    Source: Folklore (Tartu) V. 41, (2009), p. 47-78 Journal Code: Folklore (Tartu)
    Standard No: ISSN: 1406-0957

    2. Author(s): Green, Eileen ; Singleton, Carrie

    Title: MOBILE CONNECTIONS: AN EXPLORATION OF THE PLACE OF MOBILE PHONES IN FRIENDSHIP RELATIONS
    Source: Sociological review V. 57, no. 1 (2009), p. 125-44 Journal Code: Sociol Rev
    Standard No: ISSN: 0038-0261

    3. Author(s): Steeh, Charlotte ; Buskirk, Trent D. ; Callegaro, Mario

    Title: USING TEXT MESSAGES IN U.S. MOBILE PHONE SURVEYS
    Source: Field Methods V. 19, no. 1 (2007), p. 59-75 Journal Code: Field Meth
    Standard No: ISSN: 1525-822X

    4. Author(s): Tenhunen, Sirpa.

    Title: MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN THE VILLAGE : ICTS, CULTURE, AND SOCIAL LOGISTICS IN INDIA
    Source: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Vol. 14, no. 3 (2008), p. 515-534
    Additional Info: London : The Institute.
    Standard No: ISSN: 1359-0987

    5. Author(s): Fitzhenry, Michael.

    Title: CHINA ART BY PHONE : MOBILE MOVIES
    Source: Visual anthropology Vol. 21, no. 3 (2008), p. 202-216
    Additional Info: New York : Harwood Academic.
    Standard No: ISSN: 0894-9468

    6. Author(s): Cooley, Heidi Rae

    Title: IT’S ALL ABOUT THE FIT: THE HAND, THE MOBILE SCREENIC DEVICE AND TACTILE VISION
    Source: Journal of visual culture V. 3, no. 2 (2004), p. 133-55 Journal Code: J vis Cult
    Standard No: ISSN: 1470-4129

    7. Author(s): Oksman, Virpi ; Rautanien, Pirjo

    Title: ‘THAT’S MODERN LIFE FOR YOU’: MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN THE EVERYDAY LIFE OF CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS IN FINLAND
    Source: Acta ethnographica Hungarica V. 48, no. 1/2 (2003), p. 149-59 Journal Code: Acta ethnogr Hung
    Standard No: ISSN: 1216-9803

    8. Author(s): May, Harvey ; Hearn, Greg

    Title: THE MOBILE PHONE AS MEDIA
    Source: International journal of cultural studies V. 8, no. 2 (2005), p. 195-211 Journal Code: Int J cult Stud
    Standard No: ISSN: 1367-8779

    9. Author(s): Jauréguiberry, Francis

    Title: MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF TIME
    Source: Social science information V. 39, no. 2 (2000), p. 255-68 Journal Code: Social Sci Inf
    Standard No: ISSN: 0539-0184

    10. Author(s): Glazebrook, Diana

    Title: BECOMING MOBILE AFTER DETENTION
    Source: Social analysis V. 48, no. 3 (2004), p. 40-58 Journal Code: Social Analys
    Standard No: ISSN: 0155-977X

    11. Author(s): Yoon, Kyongwoon

    Title: RETRADITIONALIZING THE MOBILE: YOUNG PEOPLE’S SOCIALITY AND MOBILE PHONE USE IN SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA
    Source: European journal of cultural studies V. 6, no. 3 (2003), p. 327-43 Journal Code: Eur J cult Stud
    Standard No: ISSN: 1367-5494

    12. Author(s): Sheller, Mimi ; Urry, John

    Title: MOBILE TRANSFORMATIONS OF ‘PUBLIC’ AND [PRIVATE] LIFE
    Source: Theory, culture and society V. 20, no. 3 (2003), p. 77-105, 156 Journal Code: Theory Cult Soc
    Standard No: ISSN: 0263-2764

    13. Author(s): Williams, Stephen ; Williams, Lynda

    Title: SPACE INVADERS: THE NEGOTIATION OF TEENAGE BOUNDARIES THROUGH THE MOBILE PHONE
    Source: Sociological review V. 53, no. 2 (2005), p. 314-31 Journal Code: Sociol Rev
    Standard No: ISSN: 0038-0261

    14. Author(s): Lehtonen, Jussi.

    Title: MOBILE SERVICES IN THE COUNTRYSIDE OF FINLAND
    Source: Ethnologia fennica Vol. 30 (2002/2003), p. 42-51
    Additional Info: Helsinki : Seurasaarisäätiö.
    Standard No: ISSN: 0355-1776

    15. Author(s): Lycett, J. E. ; Dunbar, R. I. M., 1947- (Robin Ian MacDonald).

    Title: MOBILE PHONES AS LEKKING DEVICES AMONG HUMAN MALES
    Source: Human nature : an interdisciplinary biosocial perspective Vol. 11, no. 1 (2000), p. 93-104
    Additional Info: Hawthorne : Aldine de Gruyter.
    Standard No: ISSN: 1045-6767

    16. Author(s): Sonck, Johanna.

    Title: UNGDOMAR OCH MOBILTELEFONER : ETT POSTMODERNT PERSPEKTIV = YOUTH AND MOBILE TELEPHONES : A POST MODERN PERSPECTIVE
    Other Titles: Youth and mobile telephones : a post modern perspective
    Source: Budkavlen Vol. 79 (2000), p. 85-95
    Additional Info: Åbo : Etnologiska och Folkloristiska institutionerna vid Åbo akademi.
    Standard No: ISSN: 0302-2447

  3. Francisco Osorio permalink
    February 16, 2010 4:56 pm
    Mobile Livelihoods Literature Review Date: 16/02/10 Database: Sage Journals Keyword: Mobile All years covered. 1. BEING REAL IN THE MOBILE REEL: A CASE STUDY ON CONVERGENT MOBILE MEDIA AS DOMESTICATED NEW MEDIA IN SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA Larissa Hjorth. RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, larissa.hjorth@rmit.edu.au Convergence has become part of burgeoning mobile media. Whether we like it or not the mobile phone has become a vehicle for multimedia par excellence. Epitomising contemporary convergence by way of its smorgasbord of applications and multimedia possibilities, it seems almost impossible to get such a device just for voice calling without all the `extras’. But is mobile media a new emerging art form? Is it new media? Or is it a domestic technology? And in an age of convergent media can we distinguish the different media histories? As a symbol of convergent global media, mobile phone practices are also marked by divergence. This divergence is particularly the case in terms of the increasingly tenacious role of the local in informing and adapting the global. Thehistory of the mobile phone as a communication device inflects the localized practices of mobile multimedia, fusing communication with new media discourses. This article will discuss the rise of mobile communication studies and the role of locality, then turn to one of the centres for mobile innovation, Seoul, to discuss the role of mobile media as a domestic new media. Key Words: domestic technologies • locality • mobile media • new media • remediation • South Korea Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 14, No. 1, 91-104 (2008) 2. THE MOBILE PHONE, PERPETUAL CONTACT AND TIME PRESSURE Michael Bittman. University of New England, michael.bittman@une.edu.au Judith E. Brown. University of New England, jude.brown@une.edu.au Judy Wajcman. London School of Economics and Political Science, J.Wajcman@lse.ac.uk Mobile phone services are now universally diffused, creating the possibility of perpetual contact, regardless of time and location. Many think the impossibility of being ‘out of touch’ leads to increased time pressure. In addition to claims that the mobile phone has led to harried leisure, others have argued that perpetual contact extends work into the home or intensifies work in other ways. In this article, these issues are explored using survey data employing some novel methodologies — combining a questionnaire with logs of phone traffic recovered from respondents’ handsets and a purpose-designed time-diary of technology use. Overall, results show that mobile phone use is not associated with more harried leisure. Fears of work intruding into home life appear to be exaggerated. However, there is some evidence that frequent use of mobiles during working hours is associated with work intensification, at least among men. Key Words: mobile phones • time-diary • time pressure • work intensification Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 23, No. 4, 673-691 (2009) 3. UNTANGLING THE TECHNOLOGY CLUSTER: MOBILE TELEPHONY, INTERNET USE AND THE LOCATION OF SOCIAL TIES Radhamany Sooryamoorthy. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, sooryamoorthyr@ukzn.ac.za B. Paige Miller. Louisiana State University, USA Wesley Shrum. Louisiana State University, USA Among the communication technologies introduced in the developing world during the past century, none has grown more rapidly than mobile telephony.Yet the impact of mobile phone use on social relationships has received limited systematic study. This article examines the factors associated with mobile phone usage in the south Indian state of Kerala and the social structural consequences of such usage, particularly the composition and location of the social ties maintained through mobile technologies. Bivariate analysis of mobile phone usage and network composition shows that frequent users have fewer local ties and more external ties than non-frequent users. However, these effects are due largely to the association of email and mobile phone use. The article shows that internet use increases, while mobile phone use decreases the geographical diversity of social ties. The implication is that mobile telephony and internet technologies may have different consequences for the globalization process. Key Words: cellphone • email • ICTs • India • internet • Kerala • mobile phone • social networks New Media & Society, Vol. 10, No. 5, 729-749 (2008) 4. ‘WAITING FOR THE KISS OF LIFE’: MOBILE MEDIA AND ADVERTISING Rowan Wilken. University of Melbourne, Australia John Sinclair. University of Melbourne, Australia, j.sinclair@unimelb.edu.au Mobile media, especially cellphones, are now seen and heard everywhere, forming an intrinsic part of the daily lives and habits of billions of people worldwide. Curiously, despite this wide diffusion and remarkable rate of adoption, as an advertising platform the cellphone is, in the words of one commentator, still very much ‘a mass medium waiting for the kiss of life’. This article examines why this is the case, by exploring the ‘complex mobile phone ecosystem’ and the factors that contribute to the rather hesitant adoption of mobile advertising, with particular attention to the inherent conflicts amongst the interested parties in the system. It does this through a meta-analysis of themes and issues evinced in mainstream media and the advertising trade press. Study of this data is supplemented by drawing on a number of critical studies within the available research literature on the subject. Key Words: advertising • cellphone • mobile media • phone Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 15, No. 4, 427-445 (2009) 5. MOBILE PHONE USE AMONG ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS MEMBERS: NEW SITES FOR RECOVERY Scott W. Campbell. University of Michigan, USA, swcamp@umich.edu, scamp10343@aol.com Michael J. Kelley. Hawai’i Pacific University, USA, mjkelley@hpu.edu This article reports on a line of research exploring mobile phone use in the recovery efforts of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members. A preliminary investigation indicated that many individualsin AA have come to rely on the mobile phone for both instrumental and expressive recovery-related interactions. This article reports on follow-up initiatives to assess whether and how these forms of use are linked to its perceived value and explores more deeply how the technology is used in these ways. Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches, the study found that expressiveuse of the mobile phone made a particularly meaningful contribution to the perceived value of the technology as a tool for recovery. In addition, it uncovered ways that AA members are using mobilecommunication for social support and to stay connected with others in the program. The discussion offers implications of the findings and directions for future research. Key Words: Alcoholics Anonymous • cellphone • mobile communication • mobile phone • mobile telephony • social support New Media & Society, Vol. 10, No. 6, 915-933 (2008) 6. CONVERGENCE, CONNECTIVITY, AND THE CASE OF JAPANESE MOBILE GAMING Dean Chan. Edith Cowan University The specificities of Japanese mobile telephony are giving rise to new cultural economies of games production and engendering new paradigms of gameplay. These topical developments have considerable technosocial bearing and consequence. The tension between the virtual and the actual resides at the heart of topical debates about the modalities of co-presence in mobile telephony. The potential loss of anonymity in location-based mobile gaming and the increasing awareness that mobile games are mostly played at home add considerable complexity to the already-blurred boundaries of physical and virtual co-presence. The micronarratives of such newly configured and articulated social tropes arguably need to be incorporated into macroperspectives on convergence culture if only to invest the latter with additional levels of nuance and complexity. Japanese mobile gaming therefore has strategic utility in this article as a situated context for analyzing the localized cultural politics of convergence and connectivity in mobile telephony. Key Words: convergence • connectivity • cross-media • Japan • mobile games Games and Culture, Vol. 3, No. 1, 13-25 (2008) 7. A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF PERCEPTIONS AND USES OF MOBILE TELEPHONY Scott W. Campbell. University of Michigan, USA,swcamp@umich.edu Drawing from the theoretical orientation of apparatgeist, this article explores the cultural similarities and differences in perceptions and uses of mobile telephony. A sample of collegestudents from Hawaii, Japan, Sweden,Taiwan and the US mainland was surveyed to assess: (1) perceptions of the mobile phone as fashion; (2) attitudes about mobile phone use in public settings; (3) use of the mobile phone for safety/security; (4) use of the mobile phone for instrumental purposes; and (5) use of the mobilephone for expressive purposes.The results indicate some differences and several similarities among the cultural groupings and help to lay the groundwork for future research and theory-building. Key Words: apparatgeist • cell phone • mobile communication • mobile phone • mobile telephony New Media & Society, Vol. 9, No. 2, 343-363 (2007) 8. MOBILE TV: OLD AND NEW IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EMERGENT TECHNOLOGY Shani Orgad. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK,s.s.orgad@lse.ac.uk This article explores how mobile television is being constructed and understood, focusing on four concepts used in contemporary public debate to discuss the technology, namely ‘TV in your pocket’, ‘TV anytime, anywhere’, ‘TV on the go’, and ‘Enhanced TV’. Drawing on an analysis of industry reports, conferenceproceedings, websites, academic studies, press coverage, results of trials, advertisements and expert interviews, we examine the ways in which experts involved in the production, marketing, delivery and analysis of mobile TV regard this emergent technology. It is argued that mobile TV is constructed by these experts as a novel technological and cultural experience and form, while at the same time the rhetoric of novelty is paralleled with a continuous emphasis on the new medium’s relation to familiar technological worlds. The article concludes by offering an explanation for this new/old articulation of mobile TV. Key Words: experts • mobile TV • novelty • old/new • social construction Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 15, No. 2, 197-214 (2009) 9. THE GAME OF BEING MOBILE: ONE MEDIA HISTORY OF GAMING AND MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES IN ASIA-PACIFIC Larissa Hjorth. RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, larissa.hjorth@rmit.edu.au In media cultures of late, the synergy between two global dominant industries — mobile communication and gaming — has attracted much attention and stargazing. As part of burgeoning global media cultures, gaming and mobile media are divergent in their adaptation at the level of the local. In some locations where broadband infrastructure is strong and collectivity is emphasized (such as South Korea), online multiplayer games prevail. In locations where convergent mobile technologies govern (such as Japan), mobile gaming platforms dominate. In order to address the uneven adoption and definitions of mobilegaming, this paper will focus on the convergence between mobile technologies and gaming in the Asia-Pacific. By focusing on a phenomenon that prevails in both realms and cute culture, this paper will also consider how consumption and production of new technologies are conceptualized in the region. This paperargues that by looking at the phenomenon of cute culture, we can gain insight into the divergent definitions of gaming and mobility in the region, which in turn reflect the continuing localized nature of contemporary global culture. Key Words: Asia-Pacific • cute culture • gender • kawaii (cute) • mobile gaming • new media Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 13, No. 4, 369-381 (2007) 10. PREMIUM RATE CULTURE: THE NEW BUSINESS OF MOBILE INTERACTIVITY Gerard Goggin. University of Sydney, Australia, gerard.goggin@arts.usyd.edu.au Christina Spurgeon. Queensland University of Technology, Australia, c.spurgeon@qut.edu.au This article considers a neglected but crucial aspect of the new business of mobile interactivity: the premium rate data services industry. It provides an international anatomy of this industry model and the ways in which it has been used to capitalize upon the surprising success of short message service (SMS) to provide a basis for the development of consumer markets for mobile data services. It situates this analysis within a wider consideration of the role of premium rate culture in the social shaping of interactivity in convergent media. Specifically, it looks at how premium rate services are being constructed in relation to telecommunications, television and the internet. The article concludes that although premium rate culture has rejuvenated innovation in broadcast television, potentially it may constrain the interactive potential of the mobile internet. Key Words: interactivity • mobile internet • mobile messaging • mobile phones • premium mobile services • premium rate telecommunications • SMS New Media & Society, Vol. 9, No. 5, 753-770 (2007) 11. 3G TO WEB 2.0? CAN MOBILE TELEPHONY BECOME AN ARCHITECTURE OF PARTICIPATION? Jason Wilson. University of Luton, UK Telecommunications companies (telcos) paid too much for European 3G licences on the basis that they would be able to reach mobile consumers directly with web content. The subsequent reluctance of consumers to pay for commercial content and the debts and devaluations afflicting the post-tech-boom telcos has had several consequences. Besides an undercapitalized 3G infrastructure, there has been increasing consternation about the absence of a must-have service ‘killer app’ that would lead to the uptake of 3G products, and determined efforts to find one, as evidenced at events like ‘Mobile Content World’, an industry conference and trade fair held in London in October 2005. But the efforts to sell 3G spectrum (and the entire 3G experiment) may be based on a misapprehension of the nature of users’ relationships with ICTs and web content. This article presents an overview and commentary on the progress of the 3G mobile content industry. In part it is based on a review of presentations at ‘Mobile Content World’, and in part on a review and synthesis of the most recent literature covering 3G and mobile content from the fields of media studies,cultural studies, economics and business. Key Words: 3G mobiles • mobile content • mobile telephones • user-generated content • web 2.0 Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 12, No. 2, 229-242 (2006) 12. ASPECTS OF THE SEQUENTIAL ORGANIZATION OF MOBILE PHONE CONVERSATION Ian Hutchby. Simone Barnett. Brunel University This article presents an investigation of the organization and structures of talk-in-interaction over mobile phone. The analysis is based upon naturally occurring data consisting of a corpus of calls recorded during everyday activities of a young adult. Using these data we reveal a range of sequential phenomena associated with mobile phone usage. Established conversation analytic work on landline telephone conversation is used in order to build a comparative analysis of how actions such as openings, caller–called identity management, and topic introduction are accomplished in mobile vs landline telephone conversation. We first show that, far from revolutionizing the organization of telephone conversation, mobile phone talk retains many of the norms associated with landline phone talk. Subsequently, focusing on those modifications that are identifiable in our data, we show how these are related to aspects of the communicative affordances of mobile phones, orientations to which are observable in the talk of participants in mobile phone conversation. Key Words: affordances • conversation analysis • mobile telephony • new communications technologies • telephone conversation Discourse Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 147-171 (2005) 13. OLD WINE IN A NEW TECHNOLOGY, OR A DIFFERENT TYPE OF DIGITAL DIVIDE? Shelia R. Cotton. University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA, cotten@uab.edu William A. Anderson. University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA, willand@uab.edu Zeynep Tufekci. University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA, zeynep@umbc.edu Gender differences exist in both general and specific uses of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Most of this research has focused on computers and the internet to the exclusion of mobile phones. Little research has examined gender differences in specific types of mobile phone usage, especially among youth. This issue is examined using data from a random sample of middle-school students. Although gender differences exist at the bivariate level, the picture changes in multivariate models. Boys exhibited greater frequency of use for non-social, gadget-like features of mobile phones; no gender differences existed in more traditionalcommunicative mobile phone uses. Key Words: digital divide • gender • mobile phone • youth New Media & Society, Vol. 11, No. 7, 1163-1186 (2009) 14. FAMILIES WITHOUT BORDERS: MOBILE PHONES, CONNECTEDNESS AND WORK-HOME DIVISIONS Judy Wajcman. Australian National University, Australia, judy.wajcman@anu.edu.au Michael Bittman. University of New England, Australia, michael.bittman@une.edu.au Judith E. Brown. University of New England, Australia, jude.brown@une.edu.au This article examines the widespread proposition that the mobile phone dissolves the boundaries that separate work and home, extending the reach of work. It analyses data derived from apurpose-designed survey to study social practices surrounding mobile phone use.The key components of the survey investigated here are a questionnaire and a log of phone calls retrievedfrom respondents’ handsets. Rather than being primarily a tool of work extension, or even a tool that facilitates greater work-family balance, we show that the main purpose of mobile phone callsis to maintain continuing connections with family and friends. Our findings suggest that individuals exert control over the extent to which calls invade their personal time, actively encouraging deeper contacts with intimates. Key Words: mobile phones • social contact • work-family balance Sociology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 635-652 (2008) 15. THE BIOPOLITICS OF TECHNOCULTURE IN THE MUMBAI ATTACKS Caren Kaplan. Cultural Studies Graduate Group, cjkaplan@ucdavis.edu In the case of the attacks in Mumbai in November 2008 two primary discourses generative of biopolitics in the global matrix of war can be identified as a framework of knowledge about mobiletechnologies: first, that national security is threatened by the use of digital information technologies heavily symbolized by the use of mobile devices and the perceived manipulation of otherwise neutral forms of media by those deemed to be enemies; and, second, that national security is enhanced by the utilization of these technologies on the level of individuals and non-state groups within the nation to better practice democracy and to identify as citizen-consumer subjects. In the global matrix of war, the emphasis on digital information technologies and new media — especially mobile iterations — as weapons has generated the subjects of globalized and local technoculture in historically specific, militarized directions. In this context, contemporary media operate in ways that call for critical engagement rather than romanticization of a purely emancipatory sphere of social networking over and against a fully networked, enemy ‘other’. Key Words: biopolitics • digital democracy • global • mobile • network • technoculture • war Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 26, No. 7-8, 301-313 (2009) 16. MOBILE PHONE CALL OPENINGS: TAILORING ANSWERS TO PERSONALIZED SUMMONSES Ilkka Arminen & Minna Leinonen. UNIVERSITY OF TAMPERE, FINLAND Conversation analytical (CA) methodology was used to specify the new opening practices in Finnish mobile call openings, which differ systematically from Finnish landline call openings. Since the responses to a mobile call orient to the summons identifying the caller, answers have changed and diversified. A known caller is greeted. The self-identification opening that was canonical in Finnish landline calls is mainly used for answering unknown callers, while channel-opener openings involve orientation to ongoing mutual business between the speakers. Some of these changes reflect real-time coordination of the social action that the mobility of mobile phones enables. In all, the adoption of new ways of answering a call shows that people orient themselves to affordances that new technologies allow them. Mobile phone communication opens a salient new area both for the analysis of talk-ininteraction itself and also for understanding communicative behaviour in the era of ubiquitous information technology. Key Words: affordances • call opening • conversation analysis • mobile phone calls • recipient-design • telephone calls Discourse Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3, 339-368 (2006) 17. MOBILES EVERYWHERE: YOUTH, THE MOBILE PHONE, AND CHANGES IN EVERYDAY PRACTICE Eva Thulin. Box 630, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. [email: Eva.Thulin@geography.gu.se] Bertil Vilhelmson. Spatial Mobility Research Group. Box 630, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. [email: Bertil.Vilhelmson@geography.gu.se] This article explores how young people’s everyday patterns of social communication are affected by the increased use of mobile phones. We discuss three areas in which there are potentialimplications: (i) contact patterns and face-to-face interaction; (ii) other forms of spatial mobility; and (iii) individual planning and use of time. Empirically, we focus on change and rely on a two-wave panel study of 40 young persons living in Göteborg, Sweden. Data were collected through time-use diaries and in-depth interviews. The results show that young people’s total interactions with their social environment increase as the mobile promotes a flexible lifestyle of instant exchange and constant updates. Thresholds — regarding space, time and content — for communicative action are reduced. A more impulsive practice of decision-making evolves and people become more careless about time-keeping. With the reduction in the constraints of time and space, the instant access of the mobile becomes difficult to refuse, and perceived dependency on mobiles increases. Key Words: everyday life • mobile phone • young people • social communication • use of time • contacts • information communication technologies • Sweden Young, Vol. 15, No. 3, 235-253 (2007) 18. FROM CYBER TO HYBRID: MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES AS INTERFACES OF HYBRID SPACES Adriana de Souza e Silva. North Carolina State University Hybrid spaces arise when virtual communities (chats, multiuser domains, and massively multi-player online role-playing games), previously enacted in what was conceptualized as cyberspace, migrate to physical spaces because of the use of mobile technologies as interfaces. Mobile interfaces such as cell phones allow users to be constantly connected to the Internet while walking through urban spaces. This article defines hybrid spaces in the light of three major shifts in the interaction between mobile technology and spaces. First, it investigates how the use of mobile technologies as connection interfaces blurs the traditional borders between physical and digital spaces. Second, it argues that the shiftfrom static to mobile interfaces brings social networks into physical spaces. Finally, it explores how urban spaces are reconfigured when they become hybrid spaces. For this purpose, hybrid spaces are conceptualized according to three distinct but overlappingtrends: hybrid spaces as connected spaces, as mobile spaces, and as social spaces. Key Words: hybrid spaces • mobile technologies • cell phones • interfaces • mobility • connection • sociability Space and Culture, Vol. 9, No. 3, 261-278 (2006) 19. LIFESTYLES AND NEW MEDIA: ADOPTION AND USE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN CHINA Ran Wei. University of South Carolina, USA This study examines the relationships between the lifestyles of urban Chinese consumers and the adoption and use of pagers and mobile phones. Based on a probability sample of 7094 respondents from China’s seven most prosperous cities, results show that the respondents identified as yuppies tended to integrate pagers and mobile phones into their conspicuous,westernized and socially active lifestyle. Adopting a pager and mobile phone is found to be a means to achieve social differentiation and identity among this lifestyle segment. The study demonstrates the utility of segmentation analysis in delineating complex relationships among demographics, lifestyles and adoption and use of new media. Key Words: adoption • diffusion of innovations • lifestyle • mobile phone • pager • segmentation New Media & Society, Vol. 8, No. 6, 991-1008 (2006) 20. REAL TIME AND RECALL MEASURES OF MOBILE PHONE USE: SOME METHODOLOGICAL CONCERNS AND EMPIRICAL APPLICATIONS Akiba A. Cohen. Tel Aviv University, Israel Dafna Lemish. Tel Aviv University, Israel This article discusses the development, reliability, and validity of real-time measures of mobile phone use by means of Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology, in comparison with traditional questionnaire-generated recall measures. The sample consisted of 211 Israeli adult mobile phone subscribers subdivided by gender and by the amount of airtime that they normally use. The measurements were applied to three questions to which the participants responded via IVR following their incoming and outgoing mobile phone calls during a five-day period: the identity of the person with whom they spoke; their location during the call; and the urgency of the call. These data were compared with recall measures obtained earlier from questionnaires. The article discusses the merits of the IVR real-time data versus those obtained from traditional recallquestions asking for past or habitual behaviors. Key Words: gender • Interactive Voice Response (IVR) technology • Israel • mobile phone • real-time measurement • recall measurement New Media & Society, Vol. 5, No. 2, 167-183 (2003) 21. SEQUENTIAL ORDER AND SEQUENCE STRUCTURE: THE CASE OF INCOMMENSURABLE STUDIES ON MOBILE PHONE CALLS Ilkka Arminen. UNIVERSITY OF TAMPERE Two recent conversation analytical (CA) studies draw contrary conclusions from seemingly very similar materials. Hutchby and Barnett ‘show that, far from revolutionizing the organization of telephone conversation, mobile phone talk retains many of the norms associated with landline phone talk’. Arminen and Leinonen, however, state that landline and mobile calls differ systematically from each other. These incommensurate findings raise the question of why thecomparisons between landline and mobile call openings have not been able to determine whether social and communicative practices are changing. It is suggested that auxiliary elements in CA allow the emergence of incompatible findings. The auxiliary assumptions enable authors to construct the phenomenon examined from their chosen perspective. Further, it will be shown that unquestioned assumptions materialize into theoretical notions that guide the research. CA studies seem to conceptualize the relationship between sequential order and sequence structure in different ways, which leads to different findings and results. Key Words: callopenings • conversation analysis • mobile call openings • mobile phones • sequential order • sequence structure Discourse Studies, Vol. 7, No. 6, 649-662 (2005) 22. ‘CONNECTED PRESENCE’ IN DISTRIBUTED FAMILY LIFE Toke Haunstrup Christensen. Aalborg University, Denmark, thc@sbi.dk Concurrent with the explosive pervasion of information and communication technologies in recent years, mediated communication has gained a strong position in the daily interaction between family members. Based on the results of qualitative interviews with families in Denmark, this article shows how the mobile phone is used by parents and children to mediate a feeling of closeness while they are physically separated. This practice of `connected presence’ is based on frequent calls and text messages between parents and children as well as between parents themselves. The article also analyses families’ use of the mobile phone in the context of modern family life, emphasizing the importance of the temporal and spatial dispersion of family members in explaining the form and content of intra-familial mediated communication. Finally, the dual role of media technologies (including the mobile phone) in both integrating and dispersing families is discussed. Key Words: everyday life • mediated communication • mobile phones • modern family life • presence New Media & Society, Vol. 11, No. 3, 433-451 (2009) 23. HYBRID REALITY GAMES REFRAMED: POTENTIAL USES IN EDUCATIONAL CONTEXTS Adriana de Souza e Silva. North Carolina State University Girlie C. Delacruz. University of California, Los Angeles Hybrid reality games (HRGs) employ mobile technologies and GPS devices as tools for transforming physical spaces into interactive game boards. Rather than situating participants in simulated environments, which mimic the physical world, HRGs make useof physical world immersion by merging physical and digital spaces. Online multiuser environments already connect users who do not share contiguous spaces. With mobile devices, players may additionally incorporate interactions with the surrounding physical space. This article is a speculative study about the potential uses of HRGs in education, as activities responsible for taking learning practices outside the closed classroom environment into open, public spaces. Adopting the framework of sociocultural learning theory, the authors analyze design elements of existing HRGs, such as mobility and location awareness, collaboration/sociability, and the configuration of the game space, with the aim of reframing these games into an educational context to foresee how futuregames might contribute to discovery and learning. Key Words: hybrid reality games • hybrid spaces • mobile technologies • urban spaces • problem solving • situated learning • collaboration • educational technology Games and Culture, Vol. 1, No. 3, 231-251 (2006) 24. MAPPING FOOTPRINTS: A SONIC WALKTHROUGH OF LANDSCAPES AND CULTURES Francesca Veronesi. University of Sydney, Australia, fver4755@usyd.edu.au Petra Gemeinboeck. University of Sydney, Australia, petra@arch.usyd.edu.au Mobile, location-aware technologies are cultural tools for the re-enactment, re-embodiment and recontextualization of history and memory in our everyday life.The transformative potential of spatial practices that creatively employ these technologies can renegotiate our experience of place by allowing us to co-inhabitpast and present storied spaces of different cultures. The research projectMapping Footprints explores alternative means of knowing and making place through a spatial practice which mediatizes heritage conservation sites with archival records. In the context of Elvina site, a heritage place of Aboriginal culture in Sydney, we experiment with a place-making practice where the re-storing of memory renegotiates archived oral histories and the geography of thesite. We will look at the role of mediation, performativity, and representation in shaping both the development process and the experience of this augmented, storied landscape. Key Words: Aboriginal • cultural memory • locative media • mobile • place • site Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 15, No. 3, 359-369 (2009) 25. MOBILE COMMUNICATION AS A SOCIAL STAGE: MEANINGS OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN EVERYDAY LIFE AMONG TEENAGERS IN FINLAND Virpi Oksman. University of Tampere, Finland virpi.oksman@uta.fi Jussi Turtiainen. University of Tampere, Finland jussi.turtiainen@uta.fi The spread of mobile communication among Finnish teenagers has been markedly rapid during the latter half of the 1990s. Young people have created and developed a communication culture that incorporates many special features, such as a rise in the use of text-based communication channels. Teenagers’ intersecting and selective use of communication channels has generated multimedial communication. From the theoretical standpoint provided by symbolic interactionism, we can ask whether communication through new media technologies generates new forms of social interaction. If this is the case, how could we describe and analyse these new forms of interaction? The media landscapes created by teenagers serve to articulate their personal space, as well as enabling their presentation of self and defining their relationships to others. This article is based on thematic interview material, and its purpose is to analyse the meanings and use contexts of mobile communication and other multimedial communication culture among Finnishyouth. Key Words: everyday life • family context • mobile communication • multimedial communication • peer-group relations • selfpresentation • youth New Media & Society, Vol. 6, No. 3, 319-339 (2004) 26. THE MAKING OF NEO-CONFUCIAN CYBERKIDS: REPRESENTATIONS OF YOUNG MOBILE PHONE USERS IN SOUTH KOREA Kyongwon Yoon. Korea University, South Korea This article addresses how young people are represented in popular discourses of mobile phone technology and what this representation implies for the local positioning of youth. After reviewing the ways in which representations of youth and technology have been discussed in previous studies, the research reported in this article analyzes different discursive constructions of young mobile phone users in South Korea between 1997 and 2002. The study finds that the different streams of discourse in government documents, the mass media and consumer culture appear to reflect widespread anxieties in Korea about becoming involved in ‘global’ material culture and seek to counter this tendency through rearticulating hegemonic social relations. Key Words: consumption • Korea • mobile phone • representation • technology • youth New Media & Society, Vol. 8, No. 5, 753-771 (2006) 27. MOBILE PHONES AS FASHION STATEMENTS: EVIDENCE FROM STUDENT SURVEYS IN THE US AND JAPAN JAMES E. KATZ Satomi Sugiyama. Rutgers University, USA Motivated by new theoretical perspectives that emphasize communication technology as a symbolic tool and physical extension of the human body and persona (Apparatgeist theory andMachines That Become Us), this article explores how fashion, as a symbolic form of communication, is related to self-reports of mobile phone behaviors across diverse cultures. A survey of college students in the United States and Japan was conducted to demonstrateempirically the relationship between fashion attentiveness and the acquisition, use, and replacement of the mobile phone. The results suggested that young people use the mobile phone as a way of expressing their sense of self and perceive others through a ‘fashion’ lens. Hence it may be useful to investigate further how fashion considerations could guide both the rapidly growing area of mobile phone behavior, as well as human communication behavior more generally. Key Words: fashion • Japan • mobile phone • technology • United States New Media & Society, Vol. 8, No. 2, 321-337 (2006) 28. LOVE MESSAGING: MOBILE PHONE TXTING SEEN THROUGH THE LENS OF TANKA POETRY Sunil Manghani. York St John University, S.Manghani@yorksj.ac.uk The article examines the nature of mobile phone text messaging, or `txting’, in the context of a discourse of love. It draws links between the txt message and the much older, revered form of love messaging, Japanese tanka poetry. In cutting across both a historical and technological divide, it seeks to elucidate a more subtle understanding of how text messaging — from a literary perspective — plays its part in amorous exchange and argues how it has the capacity to enable individuals to affirm their own private thoughts, feelings and anxieties. Taking a cue from Michel Foucault’s late work, concerned with the philosophical precept of `care of the self’, the article argues that these differing forms of exchange — as `tender’ technologies of the self and inter-subjectivity — go beyond any one medium or age of media. Aspects of our relationships are worked out in the silent confines of being alone with text and, in the case today, with text messaging, making for the potential of a new poetics of time and space. While we cannot free ourselves from the lover’s code or discourse, there is the potential for an affirmation of our part in its production, which prompts a question about how we might go on to research the currentlymissing archive of text messaging. Key Words: archive • Barthes • discourse of love • Foucault • Luhmann • mobile phones • tanka • text messaging Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 26, No. 2-3, 209-232 (2009) 29. STATE, POWER AND MOBILE COMMUNICATION: A CASE STUDY OF CHINA Jia Lu. Texas A&M University, USA, lujiantu@tamu.edu Ian Weber. Texas A&M University, USA, iweber@tamu.edu China’s telecommunications and information industry has seen unprecedented growth since the turn of the century, with the mobile telephony sector driving significant expansion. This article examines the Chinese government’s strategy for managing the complexities of socio-economic changes created by the widespread adoption of mobile telephony. The study found that the government’s adoption of subtler forms of power establishes a relational contract with Chinese telecommunications and information industry partners and citizenry as a foundation for implementing the strategy of controlled commodification. This contract acts to modify and clarify operational boundaries within private and public spheres in an attempt to manage often competing economic, social and political objectives. Key Words: China • commodification • control • mobile telecommunications • telephony New Media & Society, Vol. 9, No. 6, 925-944 (2007) 30. WHO ARE THE MOBILE PHONE HAVE-NOTS?: INFLUENCES AND CONSEQUENCES Louis Leung. The Chinese University of Hong Kong Ran Wei. The Chinese University of Hong Kong Grounded in the diffusion of innovations theoretical framework, this study focuses on examining who the mobile telephone have-nots are and what are the factors at work. Results of a telephonesurvey with a probability sample of 834 respondents show that the have-nots tended to be older females with lower household income and education attainment. They had pagers as an alternative and subscribed to no caller ID display service at home. This study also found a polarizing phenomenon in owning new telecommunications technologies. With the poor becoming poorer, the gap between haves and have-nots is widening. A hierarchy of relative influences on the intention to adopt a mobile phone suggests that the effects of age and social differences far outweigh that of the technological differences. Key Words: diffusion of innovations • haves and have-nots • information gap • mobile phone New Media & Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, 209-226 (1999) 31. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND CELLPHONE USE IN RUSSIA: LOCAL CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Markku Lonkila. University of Helsinki, Finland, markku.lonkila@helsinki.fi Boris Gladarev. Centre of Independent Social Research, St Petersburg, Russia Despite the rapid expansion of cellphone use, academic research has paid little attention to mobile telecommunications in Russia. This article examines the adoption and use of cellphones among young Russian adults through social network data and qualitative interviews conducted in St Petersburg in 2003. The study describes the role of personal networks in the purchasing decision, depicts the practices and social rules of cellphone use and investigates the differences between cellphone and landline phone connections. The results are discussed with reference to social consequences such as the individualizing and controlling effects of cellphone use in post-Soviet Russia. Key Words: cellphones • mobile telecommunications • post-Soviet Russia • social networks New Media & Society, Vol. 10, No. 2, 273-293 (2008) 32. LOCAL SOCIALITY IN YOUNG PEOPLE’S MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS: A KOREAN CASE STUDY Kyongwon Yoon. Korea University Drawing upon ethnographic data, this article explores how young Koreans appropriate mobile phones. By examining the role of local norms of sociality among young people, the study shows that this ‘individualizing’ technology is articulated through ‘traditionalizing’ forces. Despite dominant representations of young people’s individualization via the popular use of new technologies, young Koreans in the study internalize and negotiate local norms of socialityemphasizing collective harmony based upon self-regulation. This implies that young people’s use of ‘new’ technology is integrated with the ‘old’ contexts. Key Words: individualization • Korean youth • local sociality • mobile phones Childhood, Vol. 13, No. 2, 155-174 (2006) 33. MOBILE PHONE COMMUNICATION: EXTENDING GOFFMAN TO MEDIATED INTERACTION Ruth Rettie. Kingston University, rm.rettie@kingston.ac.uk Mediated interaction has become a feature of everyday life, used routinely to communicate and maintain contacts, yet sociological analysis of mediated communication is relatively undeveloped.This article argues that new mediated communication channels merit detailed sociological analysis, and that interactional differences between media have been overlooked. Goffman explicitly restricted his interaction order to face-to-face interaction.The article adapts some of Goffman’s interactional concepts for synchronous mediated interaction, but argues that his situational focus is less relevant to asynchronous media. The theoretical approach developed is illustrated and supported by qualitative research on mobile phones, which fortuitously afford both synchronous and asynchronous communication.The study suggests that although the distinction between synchronous and asynchronous interaction is important, it is not technologically determined, but shaped by interactional norms. Key Words: Goffman • interaction order • mediated communication • mobile phones • new media • SMS • synchrony Sociology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 421-438 (2009) 34. COMMUNITY AND SOCIAL INTERACTION IN THE WIRELESS CITY: WI-FI USE IN PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC SPACES Keith N. Hampton. University of Pennsylvania, USA, khampton@asc.upenn.edu Neeti Gupta. Microsoft, USA A significant body of research has addressed whether fixed internet use increases, decreases or supplements the ways in which people engage in residential and workplace settings, but few studies have addressed how wireless internet use in public and semi-public spaces influences social life. Ubiquitous wi-fi adds a new dimension to the debate over how the internet may influence the structure of community.Will wireless internet use facilitate greater engagement with co-located others or encourage a form of ‘public privatism’? This article reports the findings of an exploratory ethnographic study of how wi-fi was used and influenced social interactions in four different settings: paid and free wi-fi cafes in Boston, MA and Seattle,WA.This study found contrasting uses for wireless internet and competing implications for community.Two types of practices, typified in the behaviors of ‘true mobiles’ and ‘placemakers’, offer divergent futures for how wireless internet use may influence social relationships. Key Words: community network • cafes • coffee shops • network • mobile computing • Muni wi-fi • parochial realm • privatism • social neworks • third places New Media & Society, Vol. 10, No. 6, 831-850 (2008) 35. MOBILE SOCIAL NETWORKS AND URBAN PUBLIC SPACE Lee Humphreys. Cornell University The development and proliferation of mobile social networks have the potential to transform ways that people come together and interact in public space. These services allow new kinds of information to flow into public spaces and, as such, can rearrange social and spatial practices. Dodgeball is used as a case study of mobile social networks. Based on a year-long qualitative field study, this article explores how Dodgeball was used to facilitate social congregation in public spaces and begins to expand our understanding of traditional notions of space and social interaction. Drawing on the concept of parochial space, this article examines how ideas of mobile communication and public space are negotiated in the everyday practice and use of mobile social networks. First published on February 9, 2010. New Media & Society 2010 36. MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND SOCIAL CAPITAL: AN ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY DIFFERENTIATED USAGE PATTERNS Scott W. Campbell and Nojin Kwak. University of Michigan. Drawing from a representative sample of adults in the USA, this study explored the links between mobile communication and selectindicators of social capital, while also accounting for usage patterns regarding the proximity of mobile contact. Overall, the findings show that mobile phone use intersects with proximity in distinctive ways that are related to spending leisure time with others in a face-to-face context and being active in organized groups and clubs. For individuals with primarily local usage patterns, both voice calling and text messaging were positively associated with social leisure activity. For those who primarily used the mobile phone to contact others from a distance, textmessaging was positively related to social leisure activity, and for those whose mobile contacts were balanced between local and distant, voice calling was positively associated with active membership in organizations. Interpretation of these findings and directions for future research are offered in the discussion. first published on february 2, 2010. New Media & Society 2010. 37. JAPAN’S MOBILE TECHNOCULTURE: THE PRODUCTION OF A CELLULAR PLAYSCAPE AND ITS CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS Michal Daliot-Bul. HAIFA UNIVERSITY, ISRAEL, mikibul@gmail.com The reception of mobile communication and internet by Japan’s youth in the late 1990s has determined the shaping of the mobile communication market in this country. From a business-oriented device, mobile phones were transformed into an intensely personal part of the users’lives, particularly notable for offering a spectacular interactive playscape that challenges the tyranny of everyday life. Rather than being a trivial mechanism of stress release or a means to make the in-between temporalities of everyday life more enjoyable, this playscape has come to be a cultural arena that both reflects as well as induces socio-cultural change. In reconstructing the cultural production of Japan’s cellular playscape, this article focuses on two sets of issues. The first is the contextualization of the mobile communication market in Japan within broader cultural processes in which youths have become the new cultural avant-garde of urban lifestyles. The second is an analysis of how the merging of play into everyday life through mobile communication technologiesis creating new modes of relating to the social, technological and urban environments. Key Words: cultural change • emotions as social practice • late consumer culture • urban lifestyles • youth popular cultures Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 29, No. 6, 954-971 (2007) 38. THE MOBILE PHONE AND THE PUBLIC SPHERE: MOBILE PHONE USAGE IN THREE CRITICAL SITUATIONS Janey Gordon. University of Bedfordshire, UK, Janey.gordon@beds.ac.uk This article seeks to explore the influence of the mobile phone on the public sphere, in particular with regard to its effect on news agendas, gatekeepers and primary definers. Using the examples of the Chinese SARS outbreak (2003), the south-east Asian tsunami(December 2004) and the London bombings (July 2005), the author questions the extent to which the mobile phone is challenging conventional and official sources of information. At times of national and personal calamity, the mobile phone is used to document and report events from eyewitnesses and those closely involved. Using multimedia messages (MMS) or text messages (SMS) to communities of friends and families, as well as audio phone calls, mobile phone users may precede and scoop official sources and thwart censorship and news blackouts. They can also provide valuable evidence of what actually occurred. Users are able to take pictures and short films and transmit these rapidly to others along with reports of what is happening where they are; they are also able to access other media broadcasts and the internet. They are what have become known as `citizen journalists’. The evidence suggests that mobile phone usage is contributing to the public sphere and in some instances is circumventing official repression or inadequate information. There is also an indication that the `mobcam’ is capturing images that would otherwise be lost. However, the mainstream media has been quick to take advantage of this citizen journalism and mediate it within its own parameters. Key Words: cell phone • citizen journalism • public sphere Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 13, No. 3, 307-319 (2007) 39. MOBILE PERFORMANCES OF A TEENAGER: A STUDY OF SITUATED MOBILE PHONE ACTIVITY IN THE LIVING ROOM Dylan Tutt This article emphasises the situated character of domestic mobile phone interactions. It investigates the importance of the mobile phone as both a communications andperformance tool to Western teenagers in their formation of identity. Sociological research into the use of mobile phones by young people often neglects the domesticrealm, from where a large proportion of text messages are sent. Combining theory with video data analysis of mobile phone interactions in the living room, the changing role performance of a teenager is traced as he attempts to negotiate his way to a party on a ‘school night.’ This video ethnography offers readings of how a mobile phone is used by ateenager to strike a ‘stance-taking self’ amid the contradictions of postmodern home life: the competing attentions of peer and ‘family’ group, the confusion of public/private spaces, conflicting household rules and moralities, and independence from and dependence on the ‘family.’ Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 11, No. 2, 58-75 (2005) 40. PETTY OFFERS OF THE POLITICAL FLEET: THE IMPACT OF PERSONAL MOBILE COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES ON COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICES OF ITALIAN POLITICIANS AND THE TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE PUBLIC SPHERE Enrico Menduni This paper analyses the particular use of personal mobile communication by Italian politicians. Research was carried out in 2004 with semi-structured interviews to professional politicians, journalists and politicians’ assistants. The paper intends to demonstrate that personal mobile communication technologies were introduced in a ‘Darwinian’ phase of political activity, at least in Italy, where every professional politician had to help themselves and survive in a milieu that almost suddenly had become very competitive, without significant support from party’s organisation as it were in the past. Personal mobile communication, in this frame of thinking, appears as a ‘help yourself’ and timesaving technique, especially for second rank politicians who do not have access to large crews of assistants. Personal mobile communication technologies contributed to determine relevant transformations in the public sphere, especially regarding to: a) bargaining and making deals with one’s peers and political partners; b) relationships with journalists and the media. At the same time, mobile communications fasten the oral dimension of politics, already pushed by audiovisual media, showing more ‘politics’ than ‘policies’. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 11, No. 2, 88-101 (2005) 41. CYBERBULLYING AMONG YOUNGSTERS: PROFILES OF BULLIES AND VICTIMS Heidi Vandebosch. University of Antwerp, Belgium Katrien Van Cleemput. University of Antwerp, Belgium, katrien.vancleemput@ua.ac.be A survey among 2052 primary and secondary school children reveals that cyberbullying among youngsters is not a marginal problem. However, there are discrepancies between the prevalence figures based on direct measurement versus indirect measurement of cyberbullying. Youngsters who have bullied someone via the internet or mobile phone during the last three months are younger, and are more often victims and bystanders of bullying via the internet or mobile phone, and are more often the perpetrators of traditional bullying. Youngsters who have been bullied via the internet or mobile phone during the last three months are more dependent upon the internet, feel less popular, take more internet-related risks, are more often a bystander and perpetrator of internet and mobile phone bullying, and are less often a perpetrator and more often a victim of traditional bullying. The implications for future research into cyberbullying and for cyberbullyingprevention strategies are discussed. Key Words: cyberbullying • prevalence • profile bullies • profile victims New Media & Society, Vol. 11, No. 8, 1349-1371 (2009) 42. INFORMATION PRIVACY AND MOBILE PHONES Gordon A. Gow Renewed concerns about information privacy and mobile phones have surfaced with the early deployment of location-based services in North America, and specifically with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) led publicsafety initiative known as Wireless E9-1-1. Initial scholarly research in this area has focussed on the use and disclosure of geographic location information of mobile phone subscribers and on the terms and conditions by which this information can be made available for lawful access or commercial purposes. This paper refers to this body of research as the ‘first domain’ of information privacy research, and describes some of the key findings and contributions forpolicy research on customer proprietary information and customer consent. The paper then turns to introduce and describe an emerging ‘second domain’ ofinformation privacy concerned with the popular adoption of anonymous prepaid mobile phone services. The distinguishing characteristic of this second domain of research is its focus on debates about the legitimacy of regulatory requirements to collect and verify customer details at the point of purchase. Thispaper draws on findings from an empirical study undertaken in Canada to identify some initial parameters of this second domain of information privacy research with the intent of informing a wider debate about the entitlement to anonymity for customers who elect to use prepaid services over commercial networks. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 11, No. 2, 76-87 (2005) 43. CONSTRUCTING A SPECIFIC CULTURE: YOUNG PEOPLE’S USE OF THE MOBILE PHONE AS A SOCIAL PERFORMANCE Letizia Caronia & André H. Caron This paper presents the main results of an exploratory qualitative study on the functions and meanings of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in young people’s everyday life. Specifically, this study concerns teenagers’ cultural ways of interpreting themobile phone and its uses, as they become part of their social world. Through their accounts and narratives about ‘young people’s use of the mobile phone’, teenagers construct their specific cultural model of this communication technology: it is seen as a radically social performance. Insofar as it is conceived as such, the mobile phone (MP) becomes a detonator of social thinking: it provokes reflective thinking on the ethics,etiquette and aesthetics of everyday action and social life. Reflecting upon the forms of use of the mobile phone, teenagers also explore the identity-making processes involved in the presentation of oneself on a public scene. In other words, they interpret and makethe uses of the MP work as a social grammar through which people are supposed to define themselves and those around them. In this sense, using an MP in a teenage-appropriate way is not a matter of technical competence; it requires larger communicativeskills that are cultural knowledge of when, where, why and, moreover, how to use this technology. Interpreted in the frames of teenagers’ specific culture, the uses of the MP are also a tool for constructing the main dimensions of this culture and are used as alaboratory for the development of the skills needed to become competent members of their own community. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 10, No. 2, 28-61 (2004) 44. MOBILITY AMONG YOUNG URBAN DWELLERS Mette Jensen. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark Young people of today travel and are more mobile than ever before. They have a considerable appetite for travelling and practically unlimited opportunities for mobility. Not only physical/bodily travelling, but also virtual travels via the Internet, or communicative travels via email, (mobile) phones and so on are separately and in combination a marked feature in everyday life among young people (see Tully,2002).To today’s youth, mobility is a fact of life that they embrace with enthusiasm and, in a number of ways, mobility sets the agenda for and constantly transforms their social life.It influences their way of perceiving and understanding the world, which in turn makes them demand a still more and increasingly complex mobility. Key Words: environment • identity • mobility • time • travel • urbanity • youth Young, Vol. 14, No. 4, 343-361 (2006) 45. CHANGES IN THE SELF RESULTING FROM THE USE OF MOBILE PHONES José M. García-Montes. University of Almería, Spain, jgmontes@ual.es Domingo Caballero-Muñoz. University of Oviedo, Spain Marino Pérez-Álvarez. University of Oviedo, Spain The present work examines the potential consequences of the use of mobile telephones on people’s behaviour and identity. In doing so, we start from the premise that, even though this technology may have different effects in different cultural contexts, it promotes and foments certain patterns of behaviour and of understanding one’s own identity. It is suggested that this new identity goes hand in hand with a spatial-temporal recomposition of the context in which actions takeplace. On the opening up of an almost continuous virtual space, conflicts may arise between the different roles played by an individual which were previously differentiated as a function of space. Similarly, increased flexibility in arrangements leads to the appearance of a new concept of time, which we might call the ‘present extensive’. We also discuss the possible superstitions the use of this new technology may bring with it. As a result of these analyses, it is considered that the mobile phone not only emerges within a postmodern society, but also, along with other technological developments, feeds a postmodern mentality. Key Words: identity • personality • postmodernism • space • technology • time Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 1, 67-82 (2006) 46. KEEPING CONNECTED: TRAVELLING WITH THE TELEPHONE Peter B. White & Naomi Rosh White This paper examines the uses of mobile and fixed telephone communicationsby travellers and the implications of that use for their experiences of travel. Based on interviews conducted with people travelling in New Zealand, we argue thattravellers give specific attention to the accessibility of phone services while planning their travel. Once travellers’ journeys and communication with distantfriends and families had commenced, travellers made clear distinctions between the relative uses, benefits and drawbacks of using oral phone communications and ‘texting’ (short message service). Both forms of communication had similar impacts on travellers’ sense of an ongoing integration into relationships from which they were temporarily physically distant. However, the two modes of communication differed with respect to what they were seen to offer. That is, oral phone communication was characterised by its ’emotionality’, while texting in particular was seen to offer distinctive opportunities for spontaneous contact. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 11, No. 2, 102-112 (2005) 47. THE MOBILE PHONE: AN ARTEFACT OF POPULAR CULTURE AND A TOOL OF THE PUBLIC SPHERE Janey Gordon [C]ontrol over media production is diverging and new, sometimes less traditional, content providers are entering the media industries. However, research on media convergence has mostly addressed stationary settings. But with the growing phenomenon of mobile information technology, it is becoming increasingly important to consider mobility as a dimension of media convergence and mobile media as a new research field. (AndreasNilsson, Urban Nuldén and Daniel Olsson) Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, Vol. 8, No. 3, 15-26 (2002) 48. CONTESTING THE NEW IRRATIONAL ACTOR MODEL: A CASE STUDY OF MOBILE PHONE MAST PROTEST Alex Law. University of Abertay, a.law@abertay.ac.uk Wallace McNeish. University of Abertay, w.mcneish@abertay.ac.uk Public opposition to the siting of telecommunications masts tends to focus on perceived health risks, yet scientific evidence suggests that mobile handsets may constitute more of a risk. This paradox is usually explained in terms of cognitive or communication deficit models that contain animplicit thesis of protest actor irrationality. Recent authors (e.g. Burgess, 2002, 2004; Taverne,2005) have, however, been more explicit in arguing that such protests are an irrational reaction to media constructed fears and state mismanagement of techno-infrastructure modernization.Together these approaches form what we call the `New Irrational Actor Model’. Drawing on insights from social movements theor y and data from a 12-month case study of the campaign againstTerrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) telecommunications masts in nor th-east Fife, we argue that contrar y to the `New Irrational Actor Model’, the anti-mast protesters utilize multi-form modes of substantive and instrumental rational action. Key Words: media • protest • rationality • risk • technology Sociology, Vol. 41, No. 3, 439-456 (2007) 49. CONCEPTUALIZING PERSONAL MEDIA Marika Lüders. SINTEF IKT, Fobkningsveien 1, 0373 Oslo, Norway, marika.luders@sintef.no The digitalization and personal use of media technologies have destabilized the traditional dichotomization between mass communication and interpersonal communication, and therefore between mass media and personal media (e.g. mobile phones, email, instant messenger, blogs and photo-sharing services). As private individuals use media technologies to create and share personal expressions through digital networks, previous characteristics of mass media as providers of generally accessible information are no longer accurate. This article may be situated within a medium-theoretical tradition, as it elucidates technical and social dimensions of personal media and revises the distinction between mass media and personal media. A two-dimensional model suggests locating personal media and mass media according to an interactional axis and an institutional/professional axis: personal media are de-institutionalized/de-professionalized and facilitate mediated interaction. The implementation of digital media technologies has important consequences for social networks and fits well within a theoretical discussion of the post-traditional self. Key Words: CMC • communication theory • convergence • medium-theory • multimodality • personal media • social technologies New Media & Society, Vol. 10, No. 5, 683-702 (2008) 50. MONITORED MOBILITY IN THE ERA OF MASS CUSTOMIZATION Mark Andrejevic. Fairfield University Just as Web browsers use information about surfing habits to customize content and advertising, so the development of mobile commerce (m-commerce) promises to capitalize on the real-time monitoring of the time-space paths followed by consumers.Thanks to the development of wireless, networked devices,
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    Part 2

    50. MONITORED MOBILITY IN THE ERA OF MASS CUSTOMIZATION
    Mark Andrejevic. Fairfield University
    Just as Web browsers use information about surfing habits to customize content and advertising, so the development of mobile commerce (m-commerce) promises to capitalize on the real-time monitoring of the time-space paths followed by consumers.Thanks to the development of wireless, networked devices, gathering detailed information about consumer mobility is becoming increasingly cheap and efficient. The result is that spaces associated with leisure and domesticity can become increasingly economicallyproductive insofar as consumers are subjected to comprehensive monitoring in exchange for the promise of customization and individuation. Drawing on examples from e-commerce and popular culture, this article explores the connection between the consumption of space and the incitement to mobility, arguing that the mass customized economy represents a continuation of the logic of market rationalization in the network era.
    Key Words: M-commerce • surveillance • reality TV • societies of control • mass customization • mobility • The Amazing Race
    Space and Culture, Vol. 6, No. 2, 132-150 (2003)

    51. `I HAVE GREAT DESIRES TO LOOK BEYOND MY WORLD’: TRAJECTORIES OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY USE AMONG GHANAIANS LIVING ABROAD
    Jenna Burrell. University of California-Berkeley, USA, jenna@ischool.berkeley.edu
    Ken Anderson. Intel Corporation, USA, ken.anderson@intel.com
    Using an ethnographic approach, this study sought to understand how the personal aspirations and social landscapes of Ghanaians living in London shaped their use of a constellation of newinformation and communication technologies (ICTs) such as camcorders, digital cameras, the internet and mobile phones. Two trajectories of ICT use were discovered among the individuals interviewed. One trajectory fit with the expected transnational practices of cultural continuity and `looking homeward’. This was evident in the way that ICTs such as camcorders supplemented or were incorporated into Ghanaian social events held in London. A second trajectory was evident when Ghanaians enrolled the internet in attempts to realize migratory aspirations, using it to explore the world, broadly searching for opportunities, information, contacts and new ideas. The use of the internet for these exploratory activities revealed how ICTs are relevant to the migration experience beyond attempts to maintain a connection with the homeland.
    Key Words: Accra • ethnography • Ghana • information and communication technologies • internet • London • transnationalism • United Kingdom
    New Media & Society, Vol. 10, No. 2, 203-224 (2008)

    52. THE AFTERMATH OF THE ICT REVOLUTION? MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY PREFERENCES IN FINLAND IN 1999 AND 2004
    Pekka Räsänen. University of Turku, Finland, pekka.rasanen@utu.fi
    It has been predicted that new information and communication technologies (ICTs) will be adopted for increasingly diversified purposes. In general, it has been argued that earlier forms of communication and mass media are being replaced by new ones. Before the early 1990s, however, neither mobile phones nor the internet were widely available to consumers. It is reasonable to ask whether the relatively recent implementation of ICT has shaped our daily practices already as much as many social scientists believe. Is it true that the new forms of technology are considered to be more important than the older ones? What differences can be observed between population groups? This article examines the perceptions of different mass media forms and communication technologies in Finland before and after the turn of the millennium. The data consist of two nationally representative postal surveys conducted in 1999 and 2004.
    Key Words: demographic factors • digital divide • media and communication technology use • socio-economic factors • temporal changes
    New Media & Society, Vol. 10, No. 2, 225-245 (2008)

    53. INTERNET AND SELF-REGULATION IN CHINA: THE CULTURAL LOGIC OF CONTROLLED COMMODIFICATION
    Ian Weber. TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, iweber@tamu.edu
    Lu Jia. TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, lujiantu@tamu.edu
    This article examines the implementation of self-regulation in China’s internet sector through theforging of subtler control relationships between media corporations and the state. It uses three case studies of domestic and global media joint venture operations in the converging areas of online and mobile gaming to show how media commercialization is balanced by controlmodalities to reaffirm the government as a central agency in the gradual transition to a socialist-market economy. Within these processes of controlled commodification, the government uses trust-building to establish cultural leadership as a way of protecting political and social cohesion while benefiting from global economic integration. The study reveals the cultural logic, or hegemonic norm, that underpins the new bottom-up business model for media management in China. Underscoring these processes, however, is a quasi- Sartrean irony of ‘winner loses’ logic, whereby increased transparency or access to information is limited to entertainment and not a substantially greater say for citizens in the formulation of China’s future.
    Key Words: China • commodification • control • internet • regulation
    Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 29, No. 5, 772-789 (2007)

    54. PLAYFUL IDENTITIES, OR THE LUDIFICATION OF CULTURE
    Joost Raessens. Utrecht University
    One of the main aims of game studies is to investigate to what extent and in what ways computer games are currently transforming the understanding of and the actual construction of personal and cultural identities. Computer games and other digital technologies such as mobile phones and the Internet seem to stimulate playful goals and to facilitate the construction of playful identities. This transformation advances the ludification of today’s culture in the spirit of Johan Huizinga’s homo ludens.
    Key Words: play • identity • narratology • ludology
    Games and Culture, Vol. 1, No. 1, 52-57 (2006)

    55. FACSIMILE: A FORGOTTEN ‘NEW MEDIUM’ FROM THE 20TH CENTURY
    Jennifer S. Light. Northwestern University, USA, light@northwestern.edu
    Scholars have expressed increasing interest in understanding the conceptual and technological roots of contemporary new media. Yet, to date, accounts of the history of media technologies have ignored the rise, fall, and transformation of one innovation whose applications in the first half of the 20th century parallel recent developments in WiFi internet, mobile telephony, telework,telemedicine, online publishing, and video-on-demand. This article introduces scholars to the history of the fax machine, and suggests how the technology provides an important comparison point for analyzing technological developments, past and present. The conclusion explores how positioning this innovation more prominently within the common disciplinary wisdom about the rise of new media opens a door for scholars to deliberate about the historiographical boundariesof the ‘old media studies’ in the era of new media: what technological systems have receiveddisproportionate attention, and what new histories of old media might be written.
    Key Words: facsimile • fax machine • history • ICTs • new media
    New Media & Society, Vol. 8, No. 3, 355-378 (2006)

    56. GOOD YOUNG NOSTALGIA: CAMERA PHONES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF SELF AMONG ISRAELI YOUTHS
    Ori Schwarz. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, ori.schwarz@gmail.com
    The nostalgic consumption of images, which only a few years ago was practised mainly by adults, has lately become prevalent among Israeli teenage girls. Girls often describe themselves as ‘nostalgic’ and nostalgia has become a desiredemotion. Unlike the nostalgia of former generations, this nostalgia is cumulative and not necessarily based on a strong dichotomous contrast between past and present. The transformation of nostalgia is closely related to developments in technology (the camera-phone and the internet) and in the possession-patterns of devices. Personal mobile phones are used by teenagers for production,archiving and consumption of documentary images on a daily basis. These images, not unrelated to those of mass media, are consumed by teenagers in order to evoke nostalgia and other emotions, as a technology of self. This trend also contributes to blur the ontic distinction between events and their representations.
    Key Words: blogs • camera-phones • consumption • databasification • egodocuments • emotions • emotionology • nostalgia • photography • technology of self • youths
    Journal of Consumer Culture, Vol. 9, No. 3, 348-376 (2009

    57. MEDIATIZATION OF THE NET AND INTERNETIZATION OF THE MASS MEDIA
    Leopoldina Fortunati. University of Udine, Italy, fortunati.deluca@tin.it
    To measure the impact of the internet on the traditional media, researchers usually begin by considering their presence and use online. The hypothesis of this article is that the most crucial measure of the impact of the internet on the classic media does not depend on the more-or-less forced invasion of the internet by the press, radio and television, but is to be sought in other processes. More exactly, it is to be found in the mediatization of the net, both fixed (computer/internet) and mobile (internet/mobile phone), and in the ‘internetization’ of the classicmass media. These two processes at the same time enable one to measure the impact of traditional media on the internet, making it possible to trace the succession of thrusts and counter-thrusts, modifications and reciprocal incursions, for which the traditional means of communication and the internet have been responsible.
    Key Words: internet • internetition • mass media • mediatization • news
    Gazette, Vol. 67, No. 1, 27-44 (2005)

    58. GOVERNING THROUGH GLOBAL NETWORKS: KNOWLEDGE MOBILITIES AND PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT
    Suzan Ilcan. University of Windsor, silcan@uwindsor.ca
    Lynne Phillips. University of Windsor, lynnep@uwindsor.ca
    This article moves beyond the `network society’ thesis to provide an analysis of select global organizations and their global knowledge networks in the field of development. Drawing on the work of contemporary theorists of governmentality, the authors argue that global knowledge networks facilitate the movement of knowledge across space and time, and adjoin particular principles as a means of governing. These networks operate as mobile technologies of government, and seek to manage the objects of development, prescribe proper conduct and cultivate active agents and citizens through participatory development activities. The authors’ claims are based on extensive policy documents, reports, network-based development programmes affiliated with specific global organizations and interviews conducted with United Nations policy and research personnel.
    Key Words: development • global networks • governmentality • knowledge mobilities • United Nations
    Current Sociology, Vol. 56, No. 5, 711-734 (2008)

    59. MOBILE TRANSFORMATIONS OF `PUBLIC’ AND `PRIVATE’ LIFE
    Mimi Sheller. Lancaster University
    John Urry. Lancaster University
    Most conceptions of public and private life within political and social theory do not adequately consider the networks or fluidities involved in contemporary social relations. The distinction of public and private is often conceived of as statically `regional’ in character. This article, following an extensive analysis of the multiple meanings of the `public’ and `private’, criticizes such a static conception and maintains that massive changes are occurring in the nature of both public and private life and especially of the relations between them. We consider flows and networks that enable mobility between and across apparent publics and privates. These mobilities are bothphysical (in the form of mobile people, objects and hybrids of humans-in-machines) and informational (in the form of electronic communication via data, visual images and texts). We consider the transformations of public and private life that have arisen from `complex’ configurations of place and space: the dominant system of car-centred automobility whose spatialfluidities are simultaneously private and public; and various globalizations through the exposure of `private’ lives on public screens and the public screening of mediatized events. These mobile, machinic examples demonstrate the limitations of the static, regional conceptualizations of public and private life developed within much social and political theory, and suggest that this divide may need relegation to the dustbin of history.
    Key Words: citizenship • complexity • global fluids • mobilities • screen • social movements
    Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 20, No. 3, 107-125 (2003)

    60. CELLPHONES IN PUBLIC: SOCIAL INTERACTIONS IN A WIRELESS ERA
    Lee Humphreys. Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, USA
    Cellphones provide a unique opportunity to examine how new media both reflect and affect the social world. This study suggests that people map their understanding of common social rules and dilemmas onto new technologies. Over time, these interactions create and reflect a new social landscape. Based upon a year-long observational field study and in-depth interviews, this article examines cellphone usage from two main perspectives: how social norms of interaction in public spaces change and remain the same; and how cellphones become markers for social relations and reflect tacit pre-existing power relations. Informed by Goffman’s concept of cross talk and Hopper’s caller hegemony, the article analyzes the modifications, innovations and violations of cellphone usage on tacit codes of social interactions.
    Key Words: cellphones • mobile phones • public space • social interaction • wireless technologies
    New Media & Society, Vol. 7, No. 6, 810-833 (2005)

    61. YOUTH CULTURE, MUSIC, AND CELL PHONE BRANDING IN CHINA
    Jing Wang. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, jing@mit.edu
    This article tracks the relationship between music and youth culture in China in the context of transnational cell phone branding. A research project conducted by the author as a participant observer/temporary marketing researcher at the Beijing office of transnational advertising agency, Ogilvy, is used to explore a primary academic concern: in what terms should we understand the relationship between music, youth culture, and cool culture in metropolitan China? The article examines the place of music in an emerging brand-conscious youth culture in China and examines what this means for the single-child generation. It questions the assumption that there is a simple equation between cool youth and cool music and concludes by placing the discussion in the context of musical subcultures and musical tribal cultures in China.
    Key Words: advertising • branding • cell phones • China • ‘cool’ • marketing • mobile music • music culture • youth culture
    Global Media and Communication, Vol. 1, No. 2, 185-201 (2005)

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